Introducing the Intellectual Lineage of Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfvén:
This universe is plasma; that is to say 99.999+% of all matter in the universe exists in plasma state. Plasma could rightfully be construed as the primary state of matter in the universe, while the gaseous, liquid, and solid states of matter that we and most of our environment is made of are the anomaly in the universe. Plasma is an ionized, electrically conductive gaseous state. Plasma is found in our world, but it mostly exists as an anomaly, just as our states of matter are mostly an anomaly elsewhere. Fire is a form of plasma, lightning is plasma too. Neon lights contain plasma when they’re on, and then the atoms within settle into a simple gaseous state when the light is off. The most famous planetary plasma may be the aurora -huge sheets of dancing glow in the skies. Plasma “dances” because electromagnetism guides its behavior. If we look into Maxwell’s Equations (the ones famous for describing light), which describe the behavior of electromagnetism, they tell us things get rather “swirly” when electric and magnetic forces are applied. Subsequently, the ubiquitous plasma structures of our universe don’t behave in the manner described by Relativity, where affects are interactive in linear fashion alone. Relativity (indeed, all of modern astrophysics/cosmology) considers gravitation alone, it is the only “force” represented in the mathematics. The tensor mathematics of Relativity may be somewhat difficult to deal with, but the concepts it describes are fairly simple: gravitation draws things in, along straight lines, adjusted only by the “curved space-time” they travel through; and the inverse, Einstein’s Cosmological Constant, or our Dark Energy: repels things, along straight lines, adjusted only by the “curved space-time” they travel through. And, of course, the presence and concentrations of those things affect the geometry of “space-time”, telling space how to curve… As we know, there is success within that approach; Relativity is honored for good reason! Just the same, Relativity is missing something; the universe absolutely does not behave precisely as Relativity describes.
Of the 4 equations that describe electromagnetism, 2 describe the properties of fields: magnetic and electric. The other two equations describe what happens to particles within those fields. The mathematics of Maxwell’s latter Equations contain a value within known as “curl”. “Curl” is not a linear coming and going. Curl is “swirly”, it’s tangential, it’s more indicative of angular momentum than linear interactions. How that curl manifests in our universe is not a simple thing to grasp; it makes the tensor equations of Relativity look like child’s play. Furthermore, this it not a negligible affect; electromagnetism is 10^36 times stronger than gravitation! A cheap, crappy refrigerator magnet stands as testament to how powerful of a force electromagnetism is: that tiny magnet, with poor strength, is fighting Earth’s entire gravitational field, and winning!!! It stays on the fridge in spite of an entire planet’s worth of gravitation trying to bring it down.
When we look into the universe, we observe plasma everywhere. Our Sun is a big ball of plasma. From it constantly flows a stream of plasma in all directions, known as solar wind. That solar wind gets channeled by Earth’s magnetic field toward the high latitudes, fluoresces our atmosphere, and we revere it as aurora. The solar wind ends at the extent of the heliosphere, where it then contributes to the plasma structure of the our galaxy. All stars in the Milky Way have solar wind that ultimately contributes to the plasma structure of our galaxy. The galaxy itself is plasma. The “arms” are plasma structures. The filamentary structures between galaxies are plasma. The filamentary “web” of the universe on the largest scales, is plasma… This whole universe is plasma! In fact, every time you read “filament” in astrophysical/cosmological/astronomical contexts, they expressly mean plasma! Every one of those “filaments” is a plasma structure. All those structures are impacted by plasma physics / electromagnetism; the behaviors of the majority of them are dominated by it.
The story of Plasma Cosmology starts over 100 years ago within the works of Birkeland and others, but Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfvén was the first to significantly apply plasma physics to space sciences. Thus, Alfvén stands as the founder of this intellectual lineage. His works amount to first generation Plasma Cosmology. More recently, we have the works of Anthony Peratt of Los Alamos National Laboratory and others bringing a more modern iteration of plasma cosmology to being. When interrogating mother nature about her structure, it becomes clear the merits of plasma models make them a far more accurate foundation than purely gravitational models. It is clear a reasonable theory of our universe CANNOT be established through exclusively gravitational models. The reason why such things exist at all may have a lot to do with:
“It turns out it has all to do with magnetic fields, which is a very long running joke in astrophysics, that we all don’t think about magnetic fields, because it’s very very complicated, but it turns out they’re the solution to *many* of astrophysics’ problems.”
-Dr Becky Smethurst, astrophysicist (Found here ~10:40 minute mark.)
This is plasma physics, courtesy of www.plasma-universe.com:
^it’s a simulation of plasma physics done by Peratt. We see real plasmas doing the same thing in labs all the time. Those angular momentum values are consistent with spiral galaxy rotation. One does not need to invoke postulated physics to approximate reality; it can be explained with known, observed, legitimately supported physics. Humanity’s physics is about to come out of its dark age.
By the way, thanks to modern physics evaluating motions through gravitation alone, the values they gain for the masses of many, if not most, of celestial objects are inherently flawed. Prevailing approach attributes all motion to gravity/mass, when the reality of the situation is motions in the universe are governed by both electromagnetism and gravity. You must factor in both gravitation and electromagnetism for a reasonably accurate evaluation of mass; modern physics fails at this task, and subsequently produces and utilizes erroneous data.
Nova is a third generation iteration of Plasma Cosmology. Nova takes quite a significant step beyond the second generation of Plasma Cosmology understood by academia today, as presented by Peratt and colleagues. This is something new. It distinguishes itself from all other models through how it interprets QM and relativistic phenomenon, nova, and more. Nova represents a significant departure from all known models of the universe. Evidence suggests Nova stands as the most comprehensive and well supported understanding of the universe known to humanity.